Started in 1980s, Zhengzhou Unique Industrial Equipment Co., Ltd (Unique Group) is already a famous manufacturer & developer of mining equipment like stone crushing & screening equipment and ore processing equipment in China. Our products scope mainly includes cone crusher, jaw crusher, impact crusher, sand making machine, vibrating screen, vibrating feeder, belt conveyor, stationary & mobile stone crushing plant, ball mill, magnetic separator and cement production line etc.

Working principle of impact crusher

2023-05-30 12:13:45

Working principle of impact crusher

The impact crusher is a crushing machine that uses impact energy to crush materials. When the machine is working, driven by the motor, the rotor rotates at a high speed. When the material enters the blow bar area, it collides with the blow bar on the rotor and breaks, and then is thrown to the impact device to be crushed again, and then bounces off the impact liner. Go back to the action area of the blow bar for re-crushing. This process is repeated. The material enters the first, second and third impact chambers from large to small for repeated crushing until the material is crushed to the required particle size and discharged from the discharge port.


The main structure of the impact crusher

The main components of the impact crusher include springs, railings, front impact frames, rear impact frames, impact liners, square steel, impact liner bolts, flip devices, main shafts, blow bars, rotor frames, liners, locking blocks, Compression blocks etc.

1. Blow bar

The shape of the blow bar is closely related to the fastening method and working load. The design of the blow bar should meet the requirements of reliable operation, easy loading and unloading, and improved metal utilization of the blow bar. Blow bars are generally made of high chromium cast iron, high manganese steel and other wear-resistant alloy steels. There are many shapes of blow bars, such as elongated, T-shaped, S-shaped, I-shaped, ax-shaped and grooved, etc., and are generally elongated.

2. Compression block

This part is widely used in all kinds of mining machinery, with excellent material and stable performance, and can be made according to different requirements. After the load test run is completed, the necessary adjustments should be made to the compression block. The compacting block has excellent characteristics such as stable chemical composition, reasonable heat treatment process, good wear resistance and high strength. The automatic clamping mechanism of the pressing block adopts the cylinder drive, connecting rod mechanism and linear guide rail to realize the sequential actions of clamping, feeding, clamping at the other end, simultaneous release, and return of the pressing block.

3. impact plate

The function of the impact plate is to withstand the impact of the material struck by the blow bar, so that the material is crushed by the impact, and bounces the crushed material back to the impact area, and then performs impact crushing again to obtain the required product particle size.

There are many forms of counterattack boards, mainly including broken lines and arcs. The broken line impact surface can make the materials on each point of the impact plate impact in an approximately vertical direction, so that the best crushing effect can be obtained. The arc-shaped counterattack surface can make the material block bounce out from the counterattack plate, and form a fierce impact crushing area in the center of the circle, so as to increase the free impact crushing effect of the material.

The impact plate is generally welded by steel plate. The counterattack surface is equipped with a wear-resistant liner, but it can also be composed of counterattack rollers or grate plates. The counterattack surface with grate seams has less fine-grained product content, which can increase the production capacity of the equipment and save power consumption. However, there are defects such as complex structure, difficult to replace the counter surface after wear, and fast wear.

Most of the rotors of the impact crusher are made of integral cast steel, the structure is firm and durable, and it is easy to install the blow bar. Its mass is large and can meet the crushing requirements. The rotors of small and light impact crushers can also be welded with steel plates.

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